Quality Nursing Writer BSN Essay 4
Quality Nursing Writer BSN Essay 4
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Factors related to academic success among nursing students: A descriptive correlational research study Audrey M. Beauvais a,⁎, Julie G. Stewart a,1, Susan DeNisco a,2, John E. Beauvais b,3 a Sacred Heart University, 5151 Park Avenue, Fairfield, CT06825-1000, United States b Yale University School ofMedicine and Psychology Service VAConnecticut Healthcare System,950 Campbell Avenue, West Haven, CT06516, United States
s u m m a r ya r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Accepted 7 December 2013
Keywords: Academic success Emotional intelligence Resilience Psychological empowerment Attrition Retention Nursing students Nursing education
Background: The current rise in employment is improving forecasts for the future supply of registered nurses; however sizeable shortages are still projected. With the intention of improving academic success in nursing students, related factors need to be better understood. Objectives: The purpose of the correlational study was to describe the relationship between emotional intelli- gence, psychological empowerment, resilience, spiritual well-being, and academic success in undergraduate and graduate nursing students. Design/setting: Adescriptive correlational design was utilized. The study was set in a private Catholic university. Participants: There were 124 participants. There were 59%undergraduate and 41%graduate students. Methods: Background data, in addition to the Spreitzer Psychological Empowerment Scale, the Wagnild and YoungResilience Scale,and the SpiritualWell-Being Scale and the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, was collected from students who met study criteria. Results: In a combined sample,academic success was correlated with overall spiritualwell-being,empowerment and resilience. Although academic success was not correlated with overall emotional intelligence, it was corre- lated with the emotional intelligence branch four (managing emotions) score.When undergraduate and gradu- ate students were considered separately, only one correlation was found to be significantly related to academic success in the undergraduate sample, namely, emotional intelligence branch one (perceiving emotions). When examining the data from just graduate levelnurses,significant relationships were found between totalemotional intelligence with academic success, resilience with academic success, and psychological empowerment with academic success. Conclusion: The significant relationship between psychological empowerment, resilience, spiritual well-being and academic success in this study supports the statements in the literature that these concepts may play an important role in persistence through the challenges of nursing education. Research is needed to examine if strategies to enhance empowerment, resilience, and spiritual well-being can increase academic success in a test–retest design. Quality Nursing Writer BSN Essay 4
© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The current rise in employment is improving forecasts for the future supplyofregistered nurses; however sizeable shortages are stillprojected for the following decade in the United States as well as in other countries such as China (Buerhaus et al., 2009; Leong, 2012). A recent study by Buerhaus et al. (2009) predicts that by 2025 the United States will have
a nursing shortage twice as large as the shortfall in the middle 1960s. In order to alleviate the shortage, nursing programs will need to increase the supply of qualified nurses. Although college enrollments continue to grow,the attrition rate from nursing programsnationwide hovers around 50%(Newton and Moore, 2009). Both nationally and internationally (Gillen, 2012; O’Donnell, 2012), attrition rates in nursing programs are of concern as they reduce the supply of nurses.
Additionally, the nursing profession should be concerned about attrition rates for masters and doctoral nursing students as well. Attri- tion rates for master’s programs range from 10 to 75%(Croxton, 2013) and rates for doctoral programs range from 40 to 70%(Berman and Radda,2012).Given the growing shortage ofnursing faculty and family physicians, the above statistics are of concern. Graduate prepared nurses will be needed to replace the large number of retiring faculty in Canada and the United States (Cathro, 2011). In additions, nurse
Nurse Education Today 34 (2014) 918–923
⁎ Corresponding author: 5151 Park Avenue, Fairfield, CT 06825-1000, United States. Tel.: + 1 203 371 7718; fax: + 1 203 365 7662.
E-mail addresses: [email protected] (A.M. Beauvais), [email protected] (J.G. Stewart), [email protected] (S. DeNisco), [email protected] (J.E. Beauvais). 1 Tel.: + 1 203 365 7750; fax: + 1 203 365 7662. 2 Tel.: + 1 203 365 7661; fax: + 1 203 365 7662. 3 Tel.: + 1 203 932 5711; fax: + 1 203 937 4951.
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practitioners are needed to help alleviate the family physician shortage. By 2020, the United States is projected to confront a shortage of 91,500 doctors (Arvantes, 2012).
In an effort to address the shortages of nurses with undergraduate and graduate nursing degrees, nursing programs have been measuring student retention, attrition, and graduation rates. Nursing programs are not the only ones taking note of such measures.External credential- ing organizations such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Educa- tion mandates the calculation of graduation rates for all nursing programs (Robertson et al., 2010). The presumption is that measures such as graduation rates will help to guide nursing programs in moni- toring how successful their curriculums are and to provide feedback on improving or maintaining strategies that facilitate student success (Robertson et al., 2010).Nurse educators need to examine ways to pro- mote student success by improving our current methodologies and practices. In order to do so, the factors that influence nursing academic success need to be better understood.
Many university’s admission departments dedicate substantial time and money for the recruitment and admission of nursing students (Shelton, 2012). Furthermore, admission staff are tasked with the ever more difficult charge ofdistinguishing applicants who can be successful (Bauchmoyer et al.,2004; Hopkins,2008).Traditionally,a student’s high school grade point average (GPA) and standardized test scores such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the American College Test® (ACT) have been identified as predictors of academic success (Noble and Sawyer, 2004; Sparkman et al., 2012; Timer and Clauson, 2011). In addition, the literature review indicates that science knowledge is a predictor of nursing program success (Byrd et al., 1999; Lewis and Lewis, 2000; Phillips et al., 2002; Potolsky et al., 2003; Wong and Wong, 1999; Wolkowitz and Kelley, 2010). Hence, the above data are frequently utilized to help recruit qualified applicants. Quality Nursing Writer BSN Essay 4
Recruiting qualified applicants is just the beginning step in fostering program completion (Shelton,2012). After students are admitted, they ought to be afforded resources that will foster their persistence in the nursing program as well as promote their academic success (Shelton, 2012).Retention as well as attrition of nursing students has been asso- ciated with demographic, academic, financial, cognitive, and personali- ty/behavioral factors (Cameron et al., 2011; Jeffreys, 2012; Pitt et al., 2012; Williams, 2010). Historically, many researchers have focused on intelligence quotient (IQ) when examining what promotes academic success (Ahammed et al., 2011). However, more recently scholars have begun to contemplate non-cognitive or psychosocial factors such as emotional intelligence, psychological empowerment, resilience, and spiritual well-being as a way to further academic success (Ahammed et al., 2011; Barchard, 2003; Bemak, 2005; Cleary et al., 2008; Deb, 2012; Kneipp et al., 2009; Sparkman et al., 2012; Suliman, 2010; Young, 2009).
More specifically, researchers found that managing emotions was positively correlated with academic success (Ahammed et al., 2011; Mayer et al.,2004).Other scholars have focused on how classroom tech- niques can promote psychological empowerment thus promoting academic success. Although, to date no research studies were found that examined the relationship between empowerment and academic success.Still other researchers have examined the relationship between academic success and resilience has been which demonstrated a positive correlation between the variables (Deb, 2012). Finally, scholars have linked spiritual well-being to many areas of function- ing (Dunn et al., 2007; Kneipp et al., 2009; Paloutzian and Ellison, 1982; Taliaferro et al., 2009; VonDras and Schmitt, 2007) and sup- port the relationship between spiritual well-being and academic success.