Creative AndCritical Thinking

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  1. Choose the BEST answer to EACH of the following questions. (14%)
  2. Which one of the following sentences expresses a necessarily true proposition? a “Some current CIHE students are less than 70 years old.”

b “Syria is a country in Western Asia.”

 

c “All wines are alcoholic drinks.”

d    All of the above.                                                                          Ans. B

 

  1. Which one of the following descriptions about a valid deductive argument must be false?

a      Its premises are all true while its conclusion is true.

  • Its conclusion is false while its premises are false.
  • Its premises are false while its conclusion is true.

d     Its conclusion is false while its premises are all true.                  Ans. D

  1. For any unsound argument, which one of the following statements must be true? a The conclusion of the argument is false.
  • The argument is invalid.
  • At least one of its premises is false.

d     None of the above.                                                                     Ans. B

  1. Which one of the following circumstances presents a counter example for the hypothesis that “all acids are corrosive”?

a     We find A which is not an acid and is not corrosive.

b     We find B which is not corrosive but is an acid.

 

c     We find C which is corrosive but is not an acid.

d     We find D which is an acid and is corrosive.                             Ans. B

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  1. Someone argues like this in 2120: “If people in the world has been producing huge amount of carbon dioxide for the last 100 years, then global warming will not slow down recently. In fact, global warming slows down recently. Therefore, people in the world did not continue to produce huge amount of carbon dioxide in the last 100 years.” The argument is ________.

a     valid; an instance of Modus Ponens.

b     valid; an instance of Modus Tollens.

 

c     invalid; a fallacy of denying the antecedent.

d     invalid; a fallacy of affirming the consequent.                         Ans. A

  1. Which one of the following descriptions is true?

a     The premises of an inductive argument must entail the conclusion.

  • New information can change the strength of an inductive argument.
  • All inductive arguments are weak.

d     All inductive arguments are hasty generalizations.                    Ans. B

  1. “We would not go to picnic. It is because it rains and ______.” If the argument is deductively valid, which one of the following statement is missing?

a     we would go to picnic if it does not rain.

b     we would not go to picnic if it does not rain.

 

c     we would not go to picnic if it rains.

d     None of the above.                                                                     Ans. A

 

  1. By saying that “Jim likes vodka only if he likes wines” we mean
  • “Jim likes wines” is the sufficient condition of “Jim likes vodka.”
  • “Jim likes wines” is the necessary condition of “Jim likes vodka.”
  • “Jim likes wines” is the sufficient and necessary condition of “Jim likes vodka.”

d     None of the above.                                                                     Ans. B

  1. “All human beings are selfish. For no one is unselfish.” This argument is an example of

a     Fallacies of inconsistency.

b     Fallacies of irrelevance.

 

c     Fallacies of inappropriate assumption.

d     Fallacies of insufficiency.                                                           Ans. D

 

  1. “Either Judy is a widow, or it is not the case that both she is married and her husband has passed away.” This compound statement can be rewritten as

a     W v M ∧ D

  • W v ~M ∧ D
  • (W v (M ∧ D))

d     W v ~ (M ∧ D)                                                                            Ans. C

  1. How would you characterize the statement “Tallinn is the capital of Lithuania or Hong Kong is the capital of China”?

a     It is an empty statement.

b     It commits a category mistake.

 

c     It is contingently false.

d     None of the above.                                                                     Ans. D

 

  1. “No queen is poor. Therefore, some women are not poor. It is because some women are queens.” The middle term of the argument is

a     Women.

b     Poor (people).

c     Queen.

d     None of the above.                                                                     Ans. A

 

 

  1. Which one of the following expressions is logically equivalent to (A v ~B)?
  • (A ≡ ~B)
  • ~(A∧B)
  • (B→A)

d     All of the above                                                                          Ans. B

 

  1. “All snakes are reptiles, but some cold-blooded animals are not reptiles. So, some cold-blooded animals are not snakes.” The argument is ________.

 

a    valid and sound.

b     valid but not sound.

c     invalid but sound.

d     invalid and not sound.                                                                Ans. A

Part Two

17.

  1. Fallacies are defined as tricks or errors of reasoning. Fallacies are referred to as errors if the reasoning happens accidentally and refers to as trick if the reasoning is employed to deceive audiences. Even if the misconception is an error or a trick its employment weakens the rationality and the soundness of an argument. Simultaneously, fallacies can harm the integrity of a writer, journalist while manipulating the emotions of the listeners or booklover (Hansen, 2015) Creative And Critical Thinking.

Formal Fallacies

Formal fallacies are logical errors, and the premise does not necessarily support the conclusion. Meaning either the premise isincorrect, or the reasoning is not valid. For instance, hypotheses: each and every human is an omnivore. Premise: each and every ratis an omnivore. Assumption: all humans are rats.

Explanation: Humans are a subsection of omnivores. Rats are a subsection of an omnivore. But these two subsets fail to overlap, and the facts make the deduction illogical, rendering the argument inacceptable, which means that the premises do not hold up the assumption Creative And Critical Thinking.

Informal fallacies

Informal fallacies metamorphosize into various forms and are more prevalent in daily life. Often, used to add extraneousmaterial into an argument or based on the assumption that would prove false when further scrutinized (Hansen, 2015). They are brought when the relation among premises and conclusion fails to keep up or when premises are not sound.

  1. Formal fallacies – Hypothesis: some dancers are men. Hypothesis: all men are animals while they will make mistakes. Assumption: So, some dancers are animals that will make mistakes Creative And Critical Thinking.
  2. Vague terms can develop wrong or confusing meanings to the receiver. Using vague terms state a general idea of something but leave out the precise meaning of a statement leaving room for interpretation. For instance, many may mean 5, 50 or 500, early could mean 5 a.m., or 4 a.m. These terms create vagueness with no real answers or actions that will follow due to their specificity that hinder accurate and effective communication. They cause linguistic pitfalls when the language used is unclear, distorted, or empty in meaning (Mertins, 2016). For instance, during the COVID-19 outbreak, officials can come out in a press conference and promise they are closely monitoring a situation and promise to take all the appropriate measures in ensuring the situation taken under control to curb the spread of the virus. Due to the vagueness, the officials should be questioned on what they meant.
  3. “You are now travelling more than 25,000 Km a day since Earth is revolving around the sun”. The reason for taking this part of the statement is because the sun revolves around the sun at a slower pace and would be impractical to travel for 25,000 km in a day and considering no individual has even taken the journey lacking actual evidence. Furthermore, there no link between someone’s travel and Earth’s revolution around the sun Creative And Critical Thinking

 

 

References

Hansen, H. (2015). Fallacies.

Mertins, B. (2016). The use of experimental methods in linguistic research: Advantages, problems and possible pitfalls. Slavic Languages in Psycholinguistics, 15-33. Creative AndCritical Thinking

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