Cognitive Efforts and Skills Acquisition Essay
Cognitive Efforts and Skills Acquisition Essay
There are many factors that influence skill acquisition, learning, and practice such as observational learning, augmented feedback, practice schedules, and organization. Furthermore, much effort in motor production lacks cognition especially when a performer repeatedly executes a complex motor task (such as a golf swing on the driving range). The performer shifts from a planned execution of the skill to a more automatic process in which action requires little cognitive effort. This assignment will allow you to explore questions surrounding skill acquisition such as the consequence of practice that requires little cognitive effort, the importance of cognitive effort as a function in skill acquisition, and methods for manipulating practice or the learning environment to increase cognitive effort without overwhelming the learner.
Motor Learning and Control: Concepts and ApplicationsMagill, R. A., & Anderson, D. (2017). Motor learning and control: Concepts and applications (11th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN-13: 9781259823992
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The American Journal of Surgery (2011) 201, 31–39 The Association for Surgical Education Evaluation of distributed practice schedules on retention of a newly acquired surgical skill: a randomized trial Erica L. Mitchell, M.D.a,*, Dae Y. Lee, M.D.a, Nick Sevdalis, Ph.D.b, Aaron W. Partsafas, M.D.a, Gregory J. Landry, M.D.a, Timothy K. Liem, M.D.a, Gregory L. Moneta, M.D.a a Division of Vascular Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; bDepartment of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK KEYWORDS: Motor skill acquisition; Motor skill retention; Distributed practice schedules; Practice distribution; Vascular anastomosis; Vascular skills laboratory; Operative competence; Surgical skills laboratory curriculum Abstract BACKGROUND: Practice influences new skill acquisition. Cognitive Efforts and Skills Acquisition Essay
The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the impact of practice distribution (weekly vs monthly) on complex motor skill (end-side vascular anastomosis) acquisition and 4-month retention. METHODS: Twenty-four surgical interns were randomly assigned to weekly training for 4 weeks or monthly training for 4 months, with equal total training times. Performance was assessed before training, immediately after training, after the completion of distributed training, and 4 months later. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in surgical skill acquisition and retention between the weekly and monthly scheduled groups, as measured by procedural checklist scores, global rating scores of operative performance, final product analysis, and overall performance or assessment of operative “competence.” CONCLUSIONS: Distributed practice results in improvement and retention of a newly acquired surgical skill independent of weekly or monthly practice schedules. Flexibility in a surgical skills laboratory curriculum is possible without adversely affecting training. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Simulation-based training is becoming widely established within surgical education, and laboratories dedicated to teaching the technical aspects of surgical skill have become increasingly popular.1 Simulation-based training provides a safe, structured environment for motor skills acquisition in which basic surgical skills are learned and practiced with the aim of better preparing trainees for the operating room experience. Although simulation-based training is unlikely to replace real operating room experiences, it serves as an adjunct for training and allows trainees * Corresponding author: Tel.: 503-494-7593; fax: 503-494-4324. E-mail address: [email protected] Manuscript received June 29, 2010; revised manuscript July 28, 2010 0002-9610/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2010.07.040 to improve their performance, overcome learning curves, and simulate the management of procedural complications, all without adverse affects to patients.2 With increasing constraints placed on residency programs, simulation-based training is gaining momentum. In fact the Residency Review Committee in Surgery has now mandated that surgery residency programs provide opportunities for surgical skills laboratory training.3– 6 The Association of Program Directors in Surgery in collaboration with the American College of Surgeons and the American Board of Surgery have developed a national surgical skills curriculum.7 This curriculum was developed to ensure uniformity in curriculum implementation as well as to provide standardized performance benchmarks for 32 skill acquisition. The curriculum has been developed in 3 phases: phase I, basic and core skills and tasks; phase II, advanced procedures; and phase III, team-based training. This is a proficiency-based skills curriculum that promotes deliberate and distributed practice for the acquisition of surgical skills.4 Although proficiency-based simulator curricula have proved to be effective for the acquisition of surgical skill, and lead to improved operating room performance, the incorporation of simulator training into the surgical curriculum has proven to be difficult.8 –13 Surgical residents have competing demands for their time and program directors have the difficult task of coordinating laboratory time away from service and operative responsibilities. It is becoming increasingly clear that successful resident participation in simulation-based training programs requires simulator training to be mandatory.14 The acquisition of a technical skill requires sustained, deliberate practice.15 Practice should be supported by detailed and immediate feedback and should provide opportunities for gradual improvement of the task.15 Furthermore, practice schedules should be distributed (several training sessions) rather than massed (all training completed in 1 training session), and training should build on an element of overlearning.1,16 –19 For skills to be maintained, they must be reinforced by regular repetition.20,21 The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of varied distribution of practice of a basic surgical skill on skill acquisition and skill retention. We chose to study one of the basic or core skills, Cognitive Efforts and Skills Acquisition Essay

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