Agricultural and Environmental Sustainability Essay
Critics argue that TVET programmes in developing countries have failed to address the issues of transforming labour market actualities in a wide variety of industries in developing nationslike South Africa. On the other hand, some pro-TVET ideologists suggest that little TVET impact observed in most developing countries is as a result of emphasis that these countries have directed towards Millennium Development Goal 2 (Providing Basic Education for all). Through the programme, most governments have shifted their focus from facilitating job-readiness exercise so that resources can be directed towards achieving Millennium Development Goal 2 (Bennel 27). Economists agree that TVET programmes have a considerable potential to be a significant contributor in most African economies, but lack of sufficient venture in TVET systems as well as institutions has been the possible limiting factor that has contributed to its obsolescence (IFAD 8).Agricultural and Environmental Sustainability Essay
AgriculturalTVET is a branch of TVET whose emphasis is on the relevant institutions that mainly offer occupational training on agricultural disciplines. The development of ATVETS in developing countries, mostly Africa, can be traced back to 1980s and 1990s. During this era, most African governments strived to cut down their expenses, and rapid industrialization and urbanization were setting in. In the process, most resources and labour were relocated from rural areas, hence agricultural training as a discipline was not addressed (Johansson and Saint 67). Atchoarena and Gasperini further explain that the post-Green revolution period led to the development of support mechanisms that could extend training in agriculture (56). The focus of such practice was to transform agriculture in developing countries from a skilled-based perceptive to a level in which scientific knowledge, technology, and technical knowledge would be incorporated into the production. However, the modern value chain in agriculture requires that agricultural producers play several roles that would facilitate the expansion of the agricultural industries.Agricultural and Environmental Sustainability Essay
In different agricultural production areas, vocational training is a tool through which farmers are equipped with the knowledge of crucial production aspects such as the most recent production techniques and technology incorporated into farming. According to Davis, agricultural extension has specifically played the role of informing farmers significant development in production strategies that could inform larger volumes of produce and even better qualities of produce (17). In most developing economies, however, the line that differentiates the roles of ATVET and those of agricultural extension has not been marked, mainly the specific purposes geared towards training for skill-based production rather than for profession. However, it is essential to note that ATVET assumes education-based approaches t training as opposed to simple installation of skills which is observed in extension services.
The UNESCO report has also outlined several roles that ATVET programmes play in sustaining the increasingly adopted Green Economy, often arguing that comprehensive education and training in agriculture will be the pathway through which developing countries will prepare its farming population for both agricultural and environmental sustainability. According to Kirui and Kozicki, ATVET programmes would need to be adjusted in such a way that it partially shifts focus to equipping the small-scale to middle size farming entities with entrepreneurial by focussing agri-business training (79). Specifically, USAID has been on the radar to sustain sharp entrepreneurial and management knowledge by incorporating such programmes to existing ATVET projects in developing countries.Agricultural and Environmental Sustainability Essay
In South Africa, the past ages of ATVET development have mainly focussed training primarily on the production skills among the farming population and producers themselves, with many ATVET programmes based on the incorporating skills at the secondary school level. The World Bank’s study focuses on the roles of ATVET programmes in the sub- Saharan Africa. The study observes that tertiary ATVET programmes, especially in South Africa, have had a comparatively small impact compared to other levels of ATVET programmes in the country (The World Bank 44) . The scholars critique the roles played byATVET in most sub-Saharan countries as an obsolete option to solving the labour requirement in the technical 21st century agricultural systems. However, a section of critics of the ATVET approach has argued that for these arrangments to take effect on equipping learners with the right professional mindset that is geared to achieving client-oriented services, policymakers should shiftATVET to complement post-secondary programmes and institutions.
Currently, ATVET programme is supported by a range of vocational training facilities and colleges, and the subsequent certification programmes are based on the level of training to which learners enrolled. Jacobs and Hawley explain that the ranges of certification programmes to which ATVET programmes are embedded are diverse and allow for the implementation of flexibility-based training instructions as well as prerequisite education (31). Besides, the current SouthAfrican agricultural vocational training programme has been for the past decade geared towards bridging the gap that exists in the historical separation of between ATVET programmes and other forms of agricultural career training.Agricultural and Environmental Sustainability Essay
Atchoarena and Gasperini, however, argue that a potential impact of transitioning in the ATVET system that strives to exclude only the post-secondary level individuals, particularly the women as well as the minority ethnic groups (121). These groups have increased vulnerability since they also possess limited opportunities to join post-secondary school programmes. Atchoarena and Gasperini also assert these groups have limited understanding of the local language as an engagement tool to more standardized and conventional education systems. Hartl’s 2009 study acknowledges that ATVET programmes guarantees non-formal or alternative programmes to which such individuals are absorbed (56).
Nevertheless, as the required standards for the skills necessary for quality and more sufficiently diverse agricultural production increases, there is a need to incorporate multiple approaches to ATVET (Jones 19). In so doing, Jones argues that these approaches must be shaped in such a way that it aligns to the scope of client-oriented professionalism. Jones further explains that these such training must be tailored to align to particular production issues and must be demand-oriented to the agricultural industry (21). The general questions to be addressed by South African policymakers on agricultural development issues should align with the specific jobs for which ATVET programmes train, and the particular skills required of such farm careers. What follows the knowledge is the appropriation of each skill level to the level of education in which the skills can be appropriately contextualized.Agricultural and Environmental Sustainability Essay
The role of vocational agricultural training in South Africa has still not been accurately categorized. And hence, there has never been a useful framework that would outline the value chain development of agricultural development running against the labour market requirements assessment (Balasubramanian et al. 72). Drawing from Bennell’s analysis of the agricultural industry, skilled labour requirements portraying a specific standard for the long list of agricultural jobs in South Africa will heavily depend on the nature of the existing value chain. The processes of producing, transporting, handling and marketing ought to be linked ina manner that all the links in the procesess can emerge specifically agricultural.
In the contexts of the South African national ATVET lines, the increasing demand for agricultural labour market at every level of the food supply and value chain is made out of the country.Besides, Kirui and Kozicki report that it is not clear whether the government has directed vocational training in such a way that it supports job creation through the implementation of multi-institutional models approach that pushes for the university graduates and postgraduate level training in an attempt to capitalize on employment opportunities across the career board (61). However, according to UNESCO, the general motive of job creation demands that a standardized educational level that encourages job competitiveness across the entire sector of agriculture. Agricultural and Environmental Sustainability Essay